George Allen & Unwin
Although social institutions are the proper subject-matter of sociology, they have not been sufficiently studied. Institutions are not mere collections of individuals or social groups, they are also organizations oriented around artifacts. The organizations are established by means of charters, written or unwritten; while the artifacts are the result of operations on materials. Charters provide institutions with a potentially long life, and the artifacts give them new, often unforeseen, directions. Frankenstein’s monster is the archetype of the institution. Essentially a productive unit, the institution has elements which interact; men manufacture the artifacts, then the artifacts seriously affect the men. Various types of institutions are examined from this point of view, including abnormal cases and limiting ideals. The last chapter deals with the problems of the social control of institutions for both theoretical and practical purposes.